今日特推: ETS解读托福与雅思分数对应关系
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揭秘托福满分口语提分技巧之独立任务题

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对于考完的同学,无论分数如何,ETS都给出了相应分数段的评价,而这珍贵的评价,由于其本身过于模板化,常常被同学们忽视。今天我们来认真分析考完以后的成绩单,希望给未来考试的同学提供帮助,同时对考完希望继续提升的同学给予“前车之鉴”。首先让我们来感受一下4分满分的各个部分得分评价以及相关提分技巧:
  TOEFL IBT Speaking Scoring Rubric
  Independent Tasks (Questions 1 and 2)
  Score:4
  General Description: The response 1) fulfills the demands of the task, with at most minor lapses in completeness. It is highly intelligible and exhibits 2)sustained, coherent discourse. A response at this level is characterized by all of the following.
  分析:很多人认为,独立任务题的4分,相对而言比后面的4题要容易拿到,因为可控的因素多,从而理所当然的认为:“独立任务更加简单,背诵答案、机经就可以了。”这种想法是错误的。各位考生必须知道:
  三大口语题型权重并列,就出题者而言,六道题并没有难易之分。
  而独立任务题,难就难在 “可控因素”上面。在不知道考官到底想听什么,一气儿乱答的情况下,就造就了屡考屡败的窘迫局面。
  综合评价提分技巧:
  关键点一:完成口语任务——语言内容要求
  45秒考生的语言陈述,是否能够完成任务要求,是决定满分与否的基本条件,诚然,ETS并不要求我们严格遵循45秒要求,毕竟人不是机器。45秒内,是否能够完整回答题目提出的问题是关键。
  关键点二:说满45秒——语言形式要求
  无论考生是否完成了任务能够把45秒钟时间说满(最多留3秒空白)的形式类似于写作对字数的要求,这一点考生必须铭记于心。
  说满时间的同时,语言表达的连贯性(语言形式要求)也是对于满分答案的基本要求。
  Delivery: Generally 1) well-paced flow (fluid expression). Speech is 2) clear. It may include minor lapses, or minor difficulties with pronunciation or 3)intonation patterns, which do not affect intelligibility.
  本项得分考察的是对于语言形式的要求:
  口语语言传递(delivery)形式,即发音要求。需要强调的是,此处ETS要求的是发音(Pronunciation)本身,无关口音。
  发音提分技巧:
  1)节奏、停顿适当,不要语速那么快,130words/min的基本语速是可以接受的
  2)发音清晰:元音饱满,辅音清晰。容忍适当的语音错误,只要不影响理解。
  3)语调表意:此处指升调和降调,适当的升调降调表达,必然为具体内容表达增添光彩,没有重读,没有语调的答案和满分无缘(哪怕语调运用不太正确,也必须具有抑扬顿挫)。
  Language Use: The response demonstrates effective use of 1)grammar and vocabulary. It exhibits a fairly high degree of automaticity with good control of 2)basic and complex structures (as appropriate). Some minor (or systemic) errors are noticeable but do not obscure meaning.
  本项考察的是对于考生语言使用(形式和内容)的综合状况:
  语言运用提分技巧:
  1) 语法和词汇运用的“正确性”把握。
  就语法和词汇在实际考试的运用而言,使用“正确的词”和“正确地用词”是同样重要的两个方面。考试或者平时练习实际操作(限时说话的时候)说你能说的东西,比说你想说的东西更加重要。中国学生语法的常见错误,就是时态表达,综合使用陈述的时候,需依据内容使用不止一个时态,是得到4分的要求之一。
  2) 就句型结构而言,“可控地”综合使用基本句子结构和复杂句子结构是满分的进一步要求,让我们一起来看下下面这个满分例子。
  “My favorite movie is Amelia for two reasons. First, I have always wanted to go to France and Amelie was filmed in France. I am studying French and I love the sound of the language. I also think Paris is romantic and I want to go to the Louvre. Secondly, Amelie had very good directing. The way the director moved the camera made the movie exciting. So, for these reasons, Amelie is my favorite movie.”(75 words)
  简单75个字,综合了复杂句和简单句,四种时态正确运用,逻辑结构分明,细节明显有效,满分范本。
  Topic Development: Response is sustained and sufficient to the task. It is generally well developed and coherent; relationships between ideas are clear (or clear progression of ideas).
  话题展开,评测的是考生的语言形式要求。很多人认为这是逻辑要求,其实不然和写作类似(甚至弱于写作),此处话题的展开,更多的是语言形式的逻辑,也就是所谓Progression of ideas。
  备注:ETS并未涉及“逻辑”二字,不知道那些辅导天才们是怎么从Coherent扯到逻辑表达的,或者,在“牛人”们看来,“逻辑”就是Coherent?)
  话题展开提分技巧:
  综上所述,话题展开的部分评测是彻头彻尾的语言形式结构考察,在准备自己的答案和平时说话练习时,请密切把握如下基本标志词,以及其对应的内容,只有从形式上把握好结构,才能够真正实现话题的展开:
  让我们在来看一下刚才的满分答案:
  “My favorite movie is Amelia for two reasons. First, I have always wanted to go to France and Amelie was filmed in France. I am studying French and I love the sound of the language. I also think Paris is romantic and I want to go to the Louvre. Secondly, Amelie had very good directing. The way the director moved the camera made the movie exciting. So, for these reasons, Amelie is my favorite movie.”(75 words)
  划线词汇,机构呈现,不言而喻。
  Progression Words:
  First
  Second
  Third
  Then
  Next
  Before
  After
  Finally
  Connection Words:
  Because
  And
  So
  Also
  Additionally
  Therefore
  Thus
  Contradiction Words:
  But
  Despite
  However
  Although
  Rather
  最后作为总结,再次强调一下独立任务的提分要诀:
  1. 回答必须完成任务,是独立任务的关键,这也是限时说话的意义所在;
  2. 回答必须具有清晰(clear)而确定(defined)的语言结构;
  3. 回答必须有具体的细节;
  4. 回答必须清晰而连贯,保持清晰连贯下的发音或语法错误可以容忍;
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