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雅思听力机经之记忆

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地图发展史
  ES 551 -- James S. Aber
  What is a Map?
  A map is a graphic representation or scale model of spatial concepts. It is a means for conveying geographic information. Maps are a universal medium for communication, easily understood and appreciated by most people, regardless of language or culture. Incorporated in a map is the understanding that it is a "snapshot" of an idea, a single picture, a selection of concepts from a constantly changing database of geographic information (Merriam 1996).
  Old maps provide much information about what was known in times past, as well as the philosophy and cultural basis of the map, which were often much different from modern cartography. Maps are one means by which scientists distribute their ideas and pass them on to future generations (Merriam 1996).
  Early Maps
  Cartography is the art and science of making maps. The oldest known maps are preserved on Babylonian clay tablets from about 2300 B.C. Cartography was considerably advanced in ancient Greece. The concept of a spherical Earth was well known among Greek philosophers by the time of Aristotle (ca. 350 B.C.) and has been accepted by all geographers since. Greek and Roman cartography reached a culmination with Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy, about A.D. 85-165). His "world map" depicted the Old World from about 60°N to 30°N latitudes. He wrote a monumental work, Guide to Geography (Geographike hyphygesis), which remained an authorative reference on world geography until the Renaissance.
  Ptolemy's map of the world, about A.D. 150, republished in 1482. Notice the use of latitude and longitude lines and the distinctive projection of this map. Taken from Whitfield (1994, p. 8-9). Click on small image to see full-sized (206 kb) version.
  Medieval Maps
  During the Medieval period, European maps were dominated by religious views. The T-O map was common. In this map format, Jerusalem was depicted at the center and east was oriented toward the map top. Viking explorations in the North Atlantic gradually were incorporated into the world view beginning in the 12th century. Meanwhile, cartography developed along more practical and realistic lines in Arabic lands, including the Mediterranean region. All maps were, of course, drawn and illuminated by hand, which made the distribution of maps extremely limited.
  Hereford Mappa Mundi, about 1300, Hereford Cathedral, England. A classic "T-O" map with Jerusalem at center and east toward the top. Taken from Whitfield (1994, p. 21). Click on small image to see full-sized (159 kb) version.
  Al-Idrisi's map of the world, 1456. Al-Idrisi was a muslim scholar in the court of King Roger II of Sicily. He completed a map of the known world in the 12th century. Drawn with south at the top, this later example has been inverted for easier viewing. Taken from Whitfield (1994, p. 29). Click on small image to see full-sized (117 kb) version.
  Northern regions map from S. Munster's Cosmographia (1588). North Atlantic region is essentially a Viking view dating from the 12-14th centuries. One of the last wood-engraved maps, done in the style of copper-plate engraving. Published posthumously by H. Petri (son in law) in Basle, Switzerland. Original map in the collection of the author.
  Renaissance Maps
  The invention of printing made maps much more widely available beginning in the 15th century. Maps were at first printed using carved wooden blocks. Printing with engraved copper plates appeared in the 16th century and continued to be the standard until photographic techniques were developed. Major advances in cartography took place during the Age of Exploration in the 15th and 16th centuries. Map makers responded with navigation charts, which depicted coast lines, islands, rivers, harbors, and features of sailing interest. Compass lines and other navigation aids were included. Such maps were held in great value for economic, military, and diplomatic purposes, and so were often treated as national or commercial secrets--classified or proprietary maps.
  Genoese nautical chart of the world, 1457. Taken from Whitfield (1994, p. 40-41). Click on small image to see full-sized (135 kb) version.
  The first whole world maps began to appear in the early 16th century, following voyages by Columbus and others to the New World. Gerardus Mercator of Flanders (Belgium) was the leading cartographer of the mid-16th century. He developed a cylindrical projection that is still widely used for navigation charts and global maps. He published a map of the world in 1569 based on this projection. Many other map projections were soon developed.
  Waldseemuller's world map, 1507, the first map to incorporate New World discoveries. This map is based on the Ptolemaic projection, but does not show the entire globe. Taken from Whitfield (1994, p. 48-49). Click on small image to see full-sized (148 kb) version.
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